Thursday, March 19, 2020

How to Use the Italian Verb Piacere

How to Use the Italian Verb Piacere Indirect object verb subject. Not your usual sentence structure, but in the case of piacere (to please, to like) thats the way it works in Italian, and heres why: In English, you say that A likes B. In Italian, though, the same meaning is understood in different terms: B pleases A. Here are some examples: Agli italiani piace il calcio. (Italians like soccer. Literally: Soccer is pleasing to Italians.)Ai professori piace insegnare. (Professors like teaching. Literally: Teaching is pleasing to professors.)Mi piacciono le carote. (I like carrots. Literally: Carrots are pleasing to me.) Note that in these examples, piacere is conjugated to match the subject of the sentence; in the first example, agli italiani piace il calcio, piacere is conjugated in the third person singular form, to match with calcio (soccer) and not with agli italiani (all Italians). Other verbs that follow this construction of inversion and behave similarly to piacere are listed below. Verbs That Act Like Piacere bastare- to be sufficient, to sufficedispiacere- to displease, to upsetmancare- to be lacking, to missoccorrere- to require, to needservire- to serve, to be of use More on Italian Verbs When studying Italian verbs, though, avoid the temptation to make absolute comparisons to English. Although there are many similarities between the two languages, there are also many fundamental differences. In addition, there are always exceptions to the rule. So while taking an organized approach to Italian verbs is a terrific way to improve your Italian, think of it like ordering in an Italian restaurant: be prepared to order a different primo if your favorite dish isnt available. When learning Italian, students naturally tend to look for grammatical patterns. Studying Italian verbs in a programmatic fashion is a wise idea because its an efficient use of time, and Italian verbs are classified in a variety of ways. When studying Italian verbs, though, avoid the temptation to make absolute comparisons to English. Although there are many similarities between the two languages, there are also many fundamental differences. In addition, there are always exceptions to the rule. So while taking an organized approach to Italian verbs is a terrific way to improve your Italian, think of it like ordering in an Italian restaurant: be prepared to order a different primo if your favorite dish isnt available. There are three primary groups of Italian verbs, classified according to the ending of their infinitives: first conjugation (-are verbs), second conjugation (-ere verbs), and third conjugation (-ire verbs). Most Italian verbs belong to the first-conjugation group and follow a highly uniform pattern. Once you learn how to conjugate one -are verb, youve essentially learned hundreds of them. And what about those Italian verbs that dont end in -are? Second-conjugation (-ere) verbs account for approximately one-quarter of all Italian verbs. Although many have some sort of irregular structure, there are also many regular -ere verbs. The final group of Italian verbs is those that end in -ire. Workbook Exercises Questions | AnswersAdjectivesA. Complete the following with the correct form of the italicized verb. Mi ________________ dieci dollari. Puoi prestarmeli? (servire)Ti ________________ quel ragazzo? (piacere)Mi ________________ le forbice. (occorrere)________________ dopo dieci pagine per un saggio. (bastare)Quanti fogli vuoi? Me ne ________________ due. (occorrere)Ci ________________ il tuo aiuto. (servire)Ci ________________ molto che tu non sia potuto venire. (dispiacere)Ai Rossi ________________ molto la figlia. (mancare)Non mi ________________ il pesce. (piacere)Mi ________________ molto i miei genitori. (mancare) Other Resources for Learning Italian Italian Language Audio LabItalian Language Lessons for Beginners with AudioHow Not To Learn Italian

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Jingle Bells in Spanish

Jingle Bells in Spanish Here are three Spanish-language Christmas songs that can be sung to the tune of Jingle Bells. None of them attempt to be a translation of the English song, although they all borrow the bell theme. Following each song is an English translation, and at the bottom of the page is a vocabulary guide for the boldfaced words. Cascabel Cascabel, cascabel,mà ºsica de amor.Dulces horas, gratas horas,Juventud en flor.Cascabel, cascabeltan sentimental.No ceces, oh cascabel,de repiquetear.adjective Translation of Cascabel Jingle bell, jingle bell,music of love.Sweet time, pleasant time,Youth in bloom.Jingle bell, jingle bellSo sentimental.Dont stop, oh jingle bell,the happy ringing. Navidad, Navidad Navidad, Navidad, hoy es Navidad.Con campanas este dà ­a hay que festejar.Navidad, Navidad, porque ya nacià ³ayer noche, Nochebuena, el nià ±ito Dios. Translation of Navidad, Navidad Christmas, Christmas, today is Christmas.It is necessary to celebrate this with bells.Christmas, Christmas, because just last nightthe little baby God was born. Cascabeles Caminando en trineo, cantando por los camposVolando por la nieve, radiantes de amorRepican las campanas, brillantes de alegrà ­aPaseando y cantando se alegra el corazà ³n,  ¡ay!Cascabeles, cascabeles, tra la la la la ¡Quà © alegrà ­a todo el dà ­a, que felicidad, ay!Cascabeles, cascabeles, tra la la la laQue alegrà ­a todo el dà ­a, que felicidad Translation of Cascabeles Traveling by sleigh, singing through the fieldsFlying through the snow, beaming with love,The bells ring, brilliant with joy.The heart is cheerful as it strolls along and sings. Whee!Jingle bells, jingle bells, tra-la-la-la-la.What joy all day, what happiness! Whee!Jingle bells, jingle bells, tra-la-la-la-la.What joy all day, what happiness! Whee! Translation Notes In this context, a cascabel typically refers to a small metallic ball with a piece of metal inside that is designed to make a ringing sound when the ball is shaken. Such a ball is often attached to the collar of a pet or the harness of a horse so its motion can be heard. A cascabel can also be a baby rattle or the rattler of a rattlesnake. Note how dulces (sweet) and gratas (pleasant or agreeable) are placed before the nouns they modify. This is commonly done with adjectives that have an emotional aspect. Thus dulce after a noun might refer to sweetness as a taste, while dulce in front may refer to a persons feelings about the noun. The suffix -tud is added to a slightly modified root word joven (meaning young) to turn the adjective into a noun, forming juventud.   Tan is closely related to tanto; both are used in making comparisons. Cesar is a cognate of to cease. Just as we would be more likely to use stop rather than cease in everyday speech, so would Spanish speakers more likely use parar or terminar. Note how this song uses the familiar second-person form ceses, speaking to the cascabel as if it were a person. This is an example of personification. Repiquetear usually refers to the lively ringing of bells, although it can also be used to the sound of drums or a repeated pounding on something. Navidad is the word for Christmas as a noun, while navideà ±o is the adjective form. Campana usually refers to a traditional bell or something that is in the shape of one. Hay que followed by an infinitive is a common way of saying that something needs to be done. Festejar usually means to celebrate, although celebrar is more common. Normally, the event being celebrated (este dà ­a) would be placed after festejar, as would be done in English. Presumably an atypical word order was used here for poetic purposes. Either và ­spera de Navidad or Nochebuena can be used to refer to Christmas Eve. Ya is a vaguely defined adverb used to add emphasis. The translation of ya is highly dependent on context. Ways of referring to last night in addition to ayer noche include anoche, ayer por la noche and la noche pasada. Nià ±ito is an example of a diminutive noun. The suffix -ito has been appended to nià ±o (boy) to make it refer to a baby boy. Dios is the word for God. As with the English god, the word is capitalized when it used as the name of a specific divine creature, especially the Judeo-Christian God. Campo usually means field. In the plural, as here, it can refer to an undeveloped rural area. Ay is a multipurpose exclamation that usually has a negative connotation such as ouch! Here it seems to be more of a simple shout of joy. Dà ­a , the word for day, is one of most common nouns ending in a that is masculine, breaking a common gender rule.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Equations of Motion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Equations of Motion - Essay Example For any vibration to occur, a restoring force must be in existence. In this respect, a restoring force is identified in a pendulum. The restoring force is applied by the springs as long as Hooke’s law is observed. The restoring force, therefore, is proportional to the extension (e) with the constant (K) as the spring constant. That is force is equal to the extension times the spring constant (f=k e). The number of oscillations per unit time is equal to the frequency. Frequency is measured in units referred to as hertz (Hz). The motion of a simple pendulum is one of the phenomena that can be used to approximate the simple harmonic motion. The motion is sinusoidal and is a demonstration of resonant frequency that is single (Dunwoody, H. 2000). A pendulum is a simple set up in which a string is attached to a small bob. The string is clamped, and when it is displaced, it swings in a to and fro motion. The time that would be taken to complete one oscillation is referred to as perio dic time (T). The periodic time depends on the length of the pendulum and the acceleration due to gravity (g). That is T=2?v (l/g) Where l is the length of the pendulum whereas g is the acceleration due to gravity (g). When a body is vibrating, its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy (Dunwoody, H. 2000). ... This paper explores an experiment of simple harmonic motion by studying a pendulum (Grant, R., 2005). The hypothesis of this experiment is that increasing the length of the pendulum shall increase the periodic time (T) of a simple pendulum. Method Apparatus The instruments and apparatus that were used in this experiment included the simple pendulum, stop watch, meter rule, and protractor. Procedure. The simple pendulum was set up. The setup was made up of three regions. The centre was the pendulum. The length of the pendulum was chosen for the pendulum by using the slider on the left side of the screen. This value was recorded in the data table. The amplitude was raised to about 20 degrees. This value was equally recorded in the data table. The start animation button was clicked, and when the pendulum passed its lowest point, the timer was started. The time taken for the pendulum to complete 10 cycles was taken, and the timer stopped as the pendulum passed through the lowest point on ce again. This time was recorded in the data table. The mass of bob and the amplitude were kept constant. The length of the pendulum was varied and the period of oscillation determined for certain pendulum length. A series of the values for the period were determined through a number of trials. The length of the pendulum was varied so as to determine whether the period of oscillation depends on the length of the pendulum cord. About four trials were done using the same amplitude but changing the pendulum lengths. The results obtained were used to plot a graph of period versus the length and graph of period against the square root of the length. Results. Table 1: A table showing the data collected. Trial Length (m) L2 (m2) Time for 10 oscillations (s) S2

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Reflection on the book 'The White Castle' Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reflection on the book 'The White Castle' - Essay Example Like in the story Hoja, a Muslim, made the western slave tell him about their life styles and he preferred these western styles over theirs. Pamuk portrays religion with great care in the book and shows how the two different thoughts of West and East can merge together. The Ottoman society follows the old traditions according to their religion and thus do not take any sanitary precautions when a plague hits Istanbul, however the Italian slave advises the Sultan to use such measures for the end of plague and the Sultan does eventually follow the Western way of removing the plague which proves to be successful. Pamuk in his story White Castle tells about the realities of life in the 17th century. It describes different events taking place in the Ottoman Empire. Cruelty is prevalent through out the plot of the story and can be clearly viewed in the characters. The Italian Scholar seems to be laid into a trap by the Eastern world but is saved by his own intellect. Similarly Pamuk is portraying the Eastern world with great uncertainty and cruelness. The pirates who capture the Italian scholar are cruel in nature and are supposedly going to kill the scholar. However the scholar’s intellect helps him to misguide the pirates into thinking that he is a doctor and this saves his life. But on the other hand the pirates do not free the scholar; they rather gift him as a slave to Hoja. The character of Hoja can also be viewed to be cruel as he absorbs all the information from the Italian scholar about his lifestyle and even then does not let him free. The cruel nature of Hoja can yet again be seen in his aim of designing a deadly weapon which would help his empire to conquer other states. And furthermore, when the weapon does not work as expected by him he steals the identity of the Italian scholar and runs away leaving him in the Ottoman

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Mediation

Mediation Mediation within a Cultural Perspective Introduction In order to better understand ourselves, we must understand others. These few words shed a different lens when dealing with differences between citizens in a community. The Alternative Discourse Resolution (ADR) movement was born during the 1960-1970 as a substitute process to serve justice outside of the courts. During this era issues of race, class, gender, social inequality, and human rights began a transformative discourse in society. The movement provided a different lens on the realties occurring in American culture. Many communities felt disempowered and unequal within the United States and insisted justice. The legal court system was stumbled with various court cases, each demanding a place to express their voice to reach impartiality. Therefore, ADR served as a tool that empowers and serves fairness without legal ties. It developed as a reflective process and began negotiating differences. The ADR was a cost efficient process that allowed disputants to voice their stories in a safe environment with the purpose of reaching an agreement through a mediator. The mediator then serves as a neutral third person in the process and common ground between the disputants. Compared to other forms of conflict resolution, mediation involves the disputants directly in the conflict and in the process of resolution (Frenkel Stark, 2008). As a result, mediation seeks self-determination, impartiality, and neutrality as the essential foundation in the practice so that inequalities are avoided in the process. In the article Why inequalities? The authors begin discussing stratification between various ethnic groups and the inequalities that constrain a variety of minorities within a historical context. Issues of intelligence and policies rise to the conclusion on how inequalities are not part of nature or by the economic regimen but of due to the historical injustices such as policys put in place that have continued to take part in acts of injustice. (Shapiro 2004). Taking this idea into perspective, diversity will arise in mediation and the importance of fairness and equality are imperative, and mediators, who are not culturally sensitive, may have biases or misunderstanding of the conflict. What are the cultural disparities that can affect the process of mediation? What are the strategies being used to help bridge the gap between cultural differences within a Western mediation process? How does the United States differ in the mediation process to international mediation? The purpose of this paper is to provide a different and fresh awareness on mediation, especially when cultural differences are at the core of the conflict. The researcher first considers that culture is significant in this discussion of mediation and central to understanding the best methods of effective mediation. ADR and mediation will be used interchangeably through out the paper Culture Culture can be defined in many different ways. For this reason, culture will be defined and described as: â€Å"[the composition of different norms, values, and beliefs for socially appropriate ways to â€Å"process† conflict and disputes, including their management or resolution (Avruch and Black 1991). A culture is not defined by one entity but can take many shapes and forms. It goes beyond the ability to identify on the surface of how someone looks, dresses and participates in society; it is the complexity of ideals and values instilled within a persona. â€Å"Our culture shapes how we approach conflict and conflict resolution- including our values, norms and conduct. It even influences how we define conflict itself and what we considered acceptable or desirable goals of problem solving† (Chew, 2004 p. 2). As a result, in mediation, misconceptions can be eluded and the mediator or the disputant shifts the power dynamics. The culture of a person can be the based off of beliefs that they bring when in a situation of dispute. By allowing the disputants to have charge in their decision-making, this will empower them and allow the disputant to participate in self-determination, but at the same time it may be dangerous when inequalities of power exist in the process (Davidheiser, 2006). Consequently, this leads to unfairness and misconceptions of mediation as a neutral sphere of negotiation. Inclusion or Exclusion of Culture in Mediation Many researchers argue for or against including culture in mediation. Kevin Avruch (2003) discusses how culture has been neglected through out mediation until the early 1980s. He also feels it is crucial for any developing mediation program to incorporate a cultural component in the training process. Mediators must understand that culture can be strongly correlated to the style of negotiation. Avruch (2003) then speaks about Type 1 and Type 2 Errors. He further discusses that each error can be crucial to the conflict resolution process by being to culturally sensitive (Type 1) or not culturally sensitive enough (Type 2). Participating in any of these errors can impact ADR because it may neglect or over emphasize an issue that intentionally was not meant or should have been exposed in mediation. Frenkel Stark have emphasized four essential skills needed by mediation to maintain balance such as communication, established climate, diagnosticians and persuasive. These four skills will create an equilibrium that is necessary to begin mediation. Although the mediation environment and mediator are balanced in power, the cultural background of the disputant will proceed as a natural component in the circle to negotiation. â€Å"However it can be socially beneficial by generating awareness of structures of power and producing frameworks within which to debate social norms by individual everyday acts of resistance which illustrate the ways in which relatively powerless people accommodate to power whilst simultaneously protecting their identities† (Mulcahy, 2000, p.147 as cited in Li On, 2008,p. 458). Meanwhile Chew (2004) states every disputant is influenced by their cultural lens and frame their ideas and perceptions around, what is culturally correct. As a result, it can shape the outcome of the ADR process because at the core of the conflict is influenced by the values and morals attached to culture by a person. Russell Korobkin would argue that mediation is a process of negotiating, and those cultural differences do not have anything in common with the negotiation strategies of a person. Therefore, Korobkin believes that it is the separation of the person from the problem that mediation and negotiation truly exists. Furthermore, Avruch would disagree and state culture provides cognitive and emotional frameworks for understanding the actions and motives of the self and others. It has been disputed for years, and the research continues to dwindle in circles. Consequently, culture should not be over or underplayed. Mediators have the responsibility to listen to each individuals voice and be able to identify if cultural difference will be an issue to reach negotiation. The space for each individual to share his or her narrative discourse allots an empowerment process that transits power to the individual. The Power of Culture in Mediation Foucault (1982) states where there is power, there is counter power also occurring. The ideas of power transmitting in mediation are crucial in understanding the facilitative process of a mediator. Therefore, their role is not only to be in charge of the process but to also allow the parties control the outcome. By the mediator controlling the process, transmission of powers can circulate in mediation. As a result, some of the conflicts and counter arguments discussed in mediation are how disadvantaged groups lack control in mediation, due to the power being brought in by the disputant. For example, an underprivileged undocumented person may walk in with less power than a person who is â€Å"American†, wealthy, and entering mediation with a lawyer. Cultural differences of respect, conflict, and language can set barriers in the process of negotiation. The power is not equally distributed across the board. Therefore, the mediator is in charge of providing the space for opportuni ties and to develop a solid communication. Mediators need to be able to diagnose if cultural difference will change the flow of mediation. The article Family Mediations and Cultural Diversity: Mediating with Latino Families discusses how the mediator can identify differences in aggressiveness, eye contact and face-saving. Cultural difference in mediation reminds me of both power and powerless participating in a transformative space during mediation; what Kris D. Gutierrez, Patricia Baquedano-Lopez and Carlos Tejeda call a constructed â€Å"third space.† The third space allows for dialogue to occur to develop knowledge in a dual voice form to construct cultural resources. The space will allow for transformation and discourse to occur. As a consequence, dialogue will begin to open doors for negotiation and develop common ground between the disputants. The process becomes a transformative space for empowerment. Paulo Freire examines the structural inequalities in society and emphasizes on the importance of dialogue between oppressed and oppressor to advance towards a humanizing pedagogy. Once dialogue is exposed dif ferences between both groups are understood. Mediation becomes a humanizing experience to transport dialogue and discuss conflicts between disputants and reach an understanding. Mark DavidHeiser (2006) articulated the importance of mediation and power imbalances that occur by using Gambia, a small country west of Africa, and explains how mediation has allowed for women to be empowered and given a voice to speak. Mediation was labeled a harmonic process where peace and respect for both parties was the central focus. Harmony ceremonies occur when ideologies between men and women are supported through a peaceful ceremony and issues of justice between male and women are shared and through various prayers rights and the need for justice between the couples are discussed. In many cases the women spoke out in front of their husbands about how they felt about their relationships. Mediation became a space that empowers women to leave their society role and be given a â€Å"voice†. The voice that allows their partners to realize the injustice occurring in their communities and at the same time helps renegotiate the power within the environment of mediation. In parallel, the article An Indigenous Imperative supports the argument of power because many indigenous groups like the Australian Aboriginal communities and the Navajo tribe to feel disconnected forms society norms and the structure of med iation. For that sole purpose having knowledge of cultural sensitivity as mediator will help dismantle power imbalances and allow for the voice of the individual to occur. By participating in a â€Å"third space† empowerment that occurs for those whose views, values and beliefs go against the Western views of individuality, a collaborative mediation is developed that values inclusion. Individuality vs. Community Mediation ideologies vary in different cultures. Providing mediation is not a single process embraced by all. Mediation across the world various and is used for various purposes. Discussing the topic of culture, it is important to mention the sense of community many cultures have and how in American culture, which is an individualistic community may clash in ideologies. Authors Glenn E. Singleton and Curtis Linton discuss in their book titled Courageous Conversations about Race, The differences of individualism vs. collectivism in the U.S. although a myriad of examples were provided, the differences between a self-expression vs. respect for authority. Developed connections to the various cultures exposed who respect a group consensus over individual thinking. This key component of culture gives insight on cultures group orientation strategy and the role it plays n mediation various studies have been conducted to camper U.S Mediation strategies to other countries. In one particular s tudy it was compared to Korean- Harmony ceremony. The Author Diane LeReche (1992) discovered that Korean mediators have a crucial and interconnected role in mediation. In many cases they provide advice and are personally connected to the disputant. They become knowledge consults who can provide guidance and reach harmony. In a very similar process, The Navajo tribe are an example of how their culture, language and traditions have influenced their way of managing conflicts. Their views on life have molded their outlook when dealing conflict resolution. Philmer Bluehouse and James W. Zion explain how the Navajo people have a deeper meaning to mediation by using strong community leaders to refocus the members to their state of reaching harmony within themselves. Through the Peacemaker court, the Navajo enforce two main laws (Bluehouse Zion, 1993 ). The laws incorporate life skills such as cooperation, friendship and unselfishness for the betterment of the community. Unlike American med iation where a third member is facilitating the communication, the peacemaker is completely involved in the process and gives advice and possible solutions to help resolve the conflict and maintain the relationship between the individuals when possible. The individuals respect the peacemaker and absorb all advice given because it is a cultural norm and the person assigned, as peacemaker is an elder highly appreciated. The individuals respect the peacemaker and absorb all advice given because it is a cultural norm and the person assigned, as peacemaker is an elder highly appreciated. Then it is the cultural lens is applied to what the needs of the community are and its members. In the Navajo clan, maintaining relationships is important and valued. Therefore, in mediation, the process becomes a medicine and is guided through a ceremonial process intended to diagnose the problem. Mediation is used to resolve conflict resolution and how the process is obtained varies in various cultural communities. Embracing community unity is significant also. In Japan community represents whole no individuality. Everything exerted is for the benefit of the community. Therefore, it is a community responsibility to participate in mediation and avoid the court unless mediation fails. In which then it represents the individuals accepting personal failure. While community unity is important as a way of life, it is also established as a community norm where the court only exists as a process for those community members who failed to participate in mediation. It is a process not embraced as an option or an alternative to legal dispute. Mediation must occur as a community duty to help maintain relations with others (Callister,Wall1997). When member of a disputants participate in community mediation, it enhances the human achievement and needs of belonging in a society without feel ing excluded (Schwerin, 1995). In Eastern Europe, community mediation is viewed as a transfer of power from an authoritative structure to a democratic ideology. Community mediation can be a powerful tool if the correct tools are used to execute the process. Western vs. Community Mediation is vividly viewed across internationally in all mediation. The differences between peacemakers and mediators distinguish the role of respect between members in the community. In Western mediations, a mediator is a facilitative person not representing any party in the process. In contrast, a peacemaker is a most commonly a relative. It builds on the unity of a community, rather then the self most commonly seen in western mediation. The process also establishes the importance of relation in relative to the essence of time. In community mediation, relationships are important for the benefit of maintaining relationships in society. In Western mediation, mediation means money. Therefore, the process is not about the relationships but of tackling the problem. The problem is detached from the person and singled out to discuss the conflict. Although the purpose of mediation is to find a common space, cultural inequalities will continue to stand out as an issu e in mediation. American culture establishes the principles for all interracial group interactions (Singleton Linton, 2006). Hence why culture continues to have â€Å"differences† in mediation. Just because other cultures do not have the same individualistic mentality and way of living does not conclude there are problems in mediation. Consequently they become differences in ADR because they do not constitute the norms, and routines of the individual. Cultural Differences in Mediation Perception Perceptions Understanding perceptions can expand the range of possible solutions. In the book, Getting to YES, The authors explain the importance of detaching the individual from the problem in order to better grasp the conflict. One of the key components in being able to do is by clarifying the perception of the disputants. Understanding perceptions can expand the range of possible solutions. Without identifying the perceptions, assumptions are made. Those assumptions developed, take part on the negotiation process. Every person carries different assumptions. While some may feel to restore connections others are there to voice justice. Trust In this process, trust is important. Without the trust between the mediator and the disputant, reaching negotiation is complicated. In the article Trust and other-Anxiety in Negotiation: Dynamics Across Boundaries of Self and Culture, the authors argue trust is a hidden feature rarely exposed in the negotiation process but is present through tension. High and low layers of trust will expose the communication between the disputants. Communication is the goal of mediation trust can be expanded by allowing the individual to feel comfortable in their environment and begin exposing the trust.† It is dynamic rather than static in quality, if not downright fluid.† (Wu Laws, 2003,p. 329). Face expulsion In Hawaii the majority of its people consist of Asian descent. The â€Å"face† concept discussed in this article as a form of self-respect and can affect the process of mediation. In Hawaii, mediation occurs very procedural. The mediators first lay the rules for mediation, and then the mediators consult with each disputant separately twice. Once voices are heard and mediators understand the situations of both disputants mediation occurs as with both disputants. This process has been successful in Hawaii in dealing with cultural differences. According to the authors, face also exists as culturally acquired social phenomena. Facial expression can originate from nature or form nurture. The Asian community has a variety of perspectives of face and how it is define is very similar within cultures. The author then recognizes Ting-Toomey face work theory and the study he conducted with Asian cultures and American culture. â€Å"Face displays not only an individuals features and uniq ueness but also that persons sense of social identity, by using metaphorical expressions†(Ogawa 1999 p.5) Depending on what culture you are from the concept of face develops and carries a natural instinct of ones persona. Face work is important to recognize because it may lead into communication dialogue. The dialogue is intended to create awareness of cultural differences and value mediation in a different way. Face concept plays a role in our communication strategies everyday. Every person quickly get diagnose the face expression of a person. Face concept is important to understand in cultural diverse communities because it allows to lower the tension between disputes and allows the mediator t understand how face is a part of an embedded culture. Mediators who understand the importance of face, will better understand the communication process of members from various cultures Tools for Cross Cultural Issues Researchers across the literature have provided various tools to help with creating equity n mediation. Culture is something deeply rooted with an Individual. In order to be able to understand the perspective of the individual reflection must be incorporated. Mediators should follow various strategies to help create a safe environment within mediation. Some of the important tools to use are Reframing. Frenkel and Stark mentions how a simple reframing of a statement by the mediator can reduce disputes and embrace positive information. If the mediator is aware of the strategy can be constructive when racial or negative tension exist between disputants. Furthermore the authors gave example on focusing on the human needs in mediation. What are the needs of the disputant? By doing so, mediation becomes a productive environment. Next Active listening, listening allows the individual to feel empowered and valued in the process. y actively listing, the participants begin to communicate the core of the problem. It is crucial for the mediator to balance and transmit he power of voice to both side in mediation. By neglecting or preferring one over the other can cause conflict in the negotiation process. Also mediators as mention by Frenkel and Starkstate mediators should continuously summarize. By summarizing you are assuring you understand the narrative story of each disputant and it avoids for assumptions to be made. Above all, I feel each individual should be valued for who they are. Everybody is unique and differences should be embraced and not singled out, as a conflict in mediation is a space to help conquer differences and establish common ground to help problem solve through collaboration. Mediation from the start! Education and Mediation Timothy Hedeen, author of Dialogue and Democracy, community and Capacity: Lessons for conflict Resolution Education from Montessori, Dewey, and Freire, expresses the importance for cultural mediation to begin at a young age. He uses the work of three huge contributors in education to help establish a dimension for conflict resolution in education. The purpose is to empower the students and to begin participating in their own self-determination process. The process becomes almost a way of living. Taking key models from the leading researchers in education, learning bout conflict becomes a group effort and a learning process. The process also allows for children to begin critically thinking and taking charge of their own voice. The process will establish end result of participants in society as problem solvers. Critically thinking about this process, can leads me to think on the transformative change that can occur in society. By establishing norms at a young age on the importance of solving our own problems, mediation would be conducted at a personal level. At the same time, children will also participate in constant dialogue with reflection and understand the viewpoints of other while in conflict. In conclusion, society has established inequities amongst various cultural groups. Mediation has expressed through out the research differs across the world. Mediators must learn to use key tools to be able and to conduct a space for any individual to feel comfortable and valued in dialogue. Establishing norms of how to deal with conflict resolution at a young age will help establish a community of critical and problem solving thinkers. References Adair, W. L., Brett, J. M. (2005). The Negotiation Dance: Time, Culture, and Behavioral Sequences in Negotiation. Organization Science, 16(1), 33-51. Avruch, K. (2000). Culture and Negotiation Pedagogy. Negotiation Journal, 0, 339-346. Avruch, K. (2003). Type 1 and Type 2 Errors in Culturally Sensitive Conflict Resolution Practice. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 20(3), 351-371. Bluehouse, P., Zion, J. W. (1993). Hozhooji Naaaanii: The Navajo Justice and Harmony Ceremony. Mediation Quarterly, 10(4), 327-337. Brigg, M. (2003). Mediation, Power, and Cultural Difference. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 20(3), 287-306. Callister, R. R., Wall Jr., J. A. (1997). Japanese Community and Organizational Mediation. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 41(2), 311-327. Callister, R. R., Wall Jr., J. A. (2004). Thai and U.S Mediation. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48(4), 573-598. Chew, P. K. (2004). The Pervasiveness of Culture in Conflict. Journal of Legal Education, 54(1), 1-23. Cobb, S. (1993). Empowerment and Mediation. Negotiation Journal, 0, 245-259. Davidheiser, M. (2006). Harmony, Peacemaking and Power: Controlling Process and African Mediation. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 23(3), 281-299. Fisher, R., Ury, W. L., Patton, B. (1991). Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In (2 Reprint ed.). Boston: Penguin (Non-Classics). Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed (15th ed.). New York: Seabury Press. Frenkel, D. N., Stark, J. H. (2008). The Practice of Mediation: A Video-integrated Text (Pap/DVD ed.). Baltimore: Aspen Publishers, Inc.. Gil, S. P. (1999). Mediation and Communication of Information in the Cultural Interface. AI SOCIETY, 13, 218-234. Gilhooley, J., Scheuch, N. (2000). Using Peer Mediation in Classrooms and Schools: Strategies for Teachers, Counselors, and Administrators (1 ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Goldberg, R. M. (2009). How Our Worldviews Shape Our practice. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 26(4), 405-431. Grose, P. R. (1995). An Indigenous Imperative: The Rationale for the Recognition of Aboriginal Dispute Resolution Mechanism. Mediation Quarterly, 12(4), 327-338. Hedeen, T. (2005). Dialogue and Democracy, Community and Capacity: Lessons for Conflict Resolution Education from Montessori, Dewey, and Freire. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 23(2), 185-202. Irving, H. H., Benjamin, M., San-Pedro, J. (1999). Family Mediation and Cultural Diversity: Mediating with Latino Families. Mediation Quarterly, 16(4), 325-339. LeResche, D. (1992). Comparison of the American Mediation Process with a Korean-American Harmony Restoration. Mediation Quarterly, 9(4), 323-339. Leng, R. J., Raegan, P. M. (2003). Social and Political Cultural Effects on the Outcomes of Mediaiton in militarized Interstate Disputes. International Studies Quarterly, 47, 431-452. Li-On, L. (2009). The Politics of Community mediation: A Study of Community Mediation in Israel. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 26(4), 453-479. Linton, C., Singleton, G. E. (2005). Courageous Conversations About Race: A Field Guide for Achieving Equity in Schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Ogawa, N. (1999). The Concept of Face work: Its Functions in the Hawaii Model of Mediation . Mediation Quarterly, 17(1), 5-20. Poitras, J. (2009). What Makes Parties Trust Mediaitors?. Negotiation Journal, 10, 307-325. Shapiro, T. (2004). Great Divides: Readings in Social Inequality in the United States (3 ed.). New York City: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. Soon, J. J. (1990). Some Guidelines for Mediators of Intercultural Disputes. Negotiation Journal, 0, 383-389. Umbreit, M. S. (1997). Humanistic Mediation: A Transformative Journey of Peacemaking . Mediation Quarterly, 14(3), 201-213. Wing, L. (2009). Mediation and Inequality Reconsidered: Bringing the Discussion to the Table. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 26(4), 383-404. Winslade, J. (2006). Mediation with a focus on Discursive Positioning . Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 23(4), 501-514. Wu, J., Laws, D. (2003). Trust and Other Anxiety in Negotiaiton Dynamic Across boundaries of Self and Culture. Negotiation Journal, 0, 329-367.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Laptop and Samsung

A. Executive Summary This paper is focused on Samsung Electronics Co. , and it has four major product lines. Digital Media line produces digital electronics for both personal and business uses. Telecommunication line produces variety of mobile phones and supply to carriers; LCD line produces flat screen monitors used on TVs, cellphones and computers. Last, semiconductors product line produces memory chips used on computers and cell phones. For each product lines, we will be talking about their history, records of success, risks and opportunities, and recommendations.Lastly, we will give recommendations regarding how the company should develop itself to be more attractive to investors. B. Introduction Samsung was founded in 1938 and are located in Seoul, South Korea. The founder’s name is Byun-Chull Lee. â€Å"Samsung† means â€Å"three stars† in Korean. It started as a trading export company. In 1969, they became Samsung Electronics Co. And now it has become one of the largest technology companies known worldwide (Samsung Electronics, 2011). It is most known for its flagship products; the Galaxy smartphone and its LCD screens.Samsung became a publicly traded company in 2000. It has four major lines of business, Digital Media, Telecommunications, LCD, and Semiconductors. C. Four Lines of Business 1. Digital Media Digital media is the line of business that consists of all of Samsung’s digital consumer products, both home and personal use. These products include; personal computers, MP3 players, cameras, televisions, and home appliances. Samsung puts forward innovative designs, select world-leading products, and power efficient products. Digital media consisted of 37% of all sales in 2010 (Sustainability Report, 2012).Samsung Distribution ChannelAs you can see from the graph below is was the majority of Samsung’s sales. In the 1970’s, Samsung came out with its first black and white televisions, washing machines, refrigerat ors, and by the end of the decade color televisions. In the 1980’s, Samsung was marketing air conditioners, personal computers, and the world’s smallest video tape recorder. Since the 1990’s, Samsung’s innovation boomed. They came out with the world’s first digital television, the world’s first Blu-ray disc player, the world’s first HD camcorder, and the world’s thinnest television (About Samsung, 2012).Samsung also led the home entertainment business into the 3D market. Digital media’s record of success is definitely significant. Its sales numbers have increased by about 4 billion USD. Unfortunately, the profits are very low compared to its sales. This is due to Samsung’s high investment in research and development. You can see the difference between sales and profits in the graph shown below. The biggest risk for the digital media line of business is whether the large investments in research and development will pay off against its competing products.Many electronic companies invest heavily in creating better products and imbedding innovative technology in them, so the competition is very high for this line of business. The only way for a company to be successful is getting its products in the most consumers’ hands. So that is why Samsung invests about 6. 2% of total sales into research and development (Sustainability Report, 2012). This enables Samsung to ensure that its products are of the best quality, have the most innovative technology, provide convenient and advanced features, and have a stylish design.Research and development will always be one of the biggest investments of a successful technology company. Samsung should continue its high investments to secure its place as the leader in technology and innovation in this industry. Since Samsung is a global leader in technology, it should use this advantage to lead the rest to the next level of innovation. Samsung has already l ead others in the 3D home entertainment business now it has the opportunity to go further and create more advanced products that will lead its consumers to a more advanced and convenient lifestyle. 2. TelecommunicationsSamsung Telecommunications is one important line of Samsung Electronics. It is known as Samsung mobile and wireless, which provides a variety of personal and business communications productions, such as mobile phones, tablets, and wireless infrastructure equipments (Samsung, 2011). In 1988, Samsung Electronics merged with telecommunication, which then became a product line of Samsung Electronics (Company history, 2012. ). In 1986, Samsung released its first built-in car phone, but it failed due to the poor products’ qualities. But, the company did not give up on telecommunication product line.In 1992, Samsung developed its own mobile phone systems. In 1997, they developed world’s smallest CDMA mobile phone (Company history, 2012). Samsung became the lead er in the personal communications service market. Samsung Electronics has been successful since the company expended business into global market. Samsung took first step and exported its personal phones to Sprint, an American CDMA carrier, and then Samsung extended into GSM market. The company’s phones are compatible with the networks of leading wireless service providers, including AT&T, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile USA, and Verizon Communications.It has powered Samsung’s growth in the telecommunications industry. The bestselling Galaxy S smartphones was launched in 2011. It has been sold more than 20 million units around the world. In 2012, Samsung Electronics was ranked the 17th of global 500 companies by the Financial Times (Samsung annual report, 2012). By end of second quarter 2012, Samsung Electronics accounted for 330 million or 21. 2% of worldwide demand of mobile phones (Samsung annual report, 2011). (See Fig. 1. ) Fig. 1. Samsung Smartphone Market shares in 2011: 19. 9% (Samsung) The major risk was patent lawsuits.Samsung Electronics has involved with lawsuits in more than 10 countries between Samsung and Apple (Wingfield, 2012). Opportunity for Samsung is that partnership with more carriers, which would help Samsung Telecommunication to expand their business and market share. The recommendations for Samsung telecommunication is that focus on unique technology design. I think that will not only help Samsung avoid lawsuits, but also increase the market share and customer royalty. 3. Samsung’s LCD Display A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat screen monitor that is made of a thin liquid crystal layer in the middle.LCDs are used in many different applications such as, televisions, mobile phones, laptops and computers. LCD screen has been one of the best-selling products of Samsung, yet it still faces risks and needs some improvement to attract more customers (Mote, Stansell, & Greenland, 2010). Mote et al. (2010) state that Samsung c reated LCD technology in 1991. The LCD panel was first used for laptop computers and showed at a world trade event in Japan. The first LCD display for laptop computer was 9. 3 inches. In 2002, Samsung introduced a 54-inch digital LCD television monitor-the largest LCD television in the world at that time.Today, Samsung is the most famous LCD maker in the global market (Mote, Stansell, & Greenland, 2010). According to â€Å"About Samsung† (2012), Samsung sustained the highest profit among LCD manufactures over the world in 2007. In 2009, Samsung became the first company that sold more than ten million LCD televisions in the first half of the year and more than five million LCD panels per month. Epperson shows that, total segment revenue of LCD was about 62. 6 trillion U. S dollars in 2011. There were about 330 million shares, and the price was 1,067 dollars per share.Samsung has also maintained the largest market share in the global LCD televisions from the first quarter of 20 11 to the second quarter of 2012 (About Samsung, 2012; Epperson, 2012). (Data collected from www. statista. com) Although the record of success of LCDs seems really outstanding, Samsung is facing many risks. One of the risks that Samsung confronted was about LCD patent infringement. In 2008, Sharp filed the suit against Samsung in the U. S. District Court for violating its four patents related to a technology to improve the picture quality of LCDs. Then, Sharp expanded the suit to South Korea in December of the same year.Samsung fought back in the same month with lawsuits in Japan and the U. S. For some reasons, Samsung won over Sharp in Japan, but lose the case in the U. S. In 2009 US International Trade Commission began to block Samsung LCD products. Samsung also faces price war from other serious competitors such as LG, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic. In Standard & Poor’s Equity Research, Samsung’s LCD sales are decreasing due to the very competitive prices other comp etitors offer consumers (Patel, 2012). Base on â€Å"LexisNexis Academic† (2012), Samsung just created a new technology of LCD called Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED).This is another type of flat panel display which is very thin and flexible. Samsung announced that it will use AMOLED to invent a new model of its mobile phone named â€Å"Youm†, and the product will be introduced at the beginning of 2013. This is considered as a bright opportunity for Samsung in the future to increase its LCD revenues and profits (â€Å"Samsung’s flexible†, 2012). (Google images) To overcome risks and be more attractive to investors, Samsung should obtain LCD patent protection. For example, when any LCD design is created, Samsung should register for a license or trademark to protect the company from copyright.Samsung also need to focus on Research and Development investment to create new technology, new products and find out ways to lower the production costs, so they can compet e on price with others. 4. Semiconductors The decision of entering the semiconductor business is essential to Samsung. Byung-Chull Lee, the founder of Samsung, realized how big the high-tech electronics market would be in the future in mid-1970s, and that Samsung has to be a major player. Because of that, he decided to form Samsung Semiconductor and Telecommunications Co. in 1978.However, South Korea is lack of technological expertise, and that’s when the South Korean government steps in. The South Korean government required foreign telecommunications equipment manufacturers to hand out advanced semiconductor technology, in order for them to get access to the South Korean market. (Data collected from IBIS World) Semiconductor is one of the most successful product lines in Samsung. The sales of semiconductor have increased from 32. 6 billion dollars in 2010 to 33. 5 billion dollars in 2011. Moreover, its net income has also increased from 16 million dollars in 2010 to 48 milli on dollars in 2011.In fact, the company’s semiconductor segment consists two major parts: memory and LSI (Large-Scale Integration). Like the past 15 years, Samsung has topped the position in the dynamic random-access memory in 2011 with 42. 2% of shares. For the LSI segment, Samsung produces LCD panels for computer monitors and notebook displays. In 2011, Samsung has about $26. 5 million of revenue from LCD panel business (IBIS world, 2012). One of the biggest customers to Samsung’s semiconductor product line is Apple, which is recently considering switching to another semiconductor manufacturer.Losing this huge customer will definitely risk the market position of Samsung, as it is now at the top of the semiconductor manufacturing market. Opportunity for the product line would be its rising demand. There is a growing demand on semiconductor out in the market. Although the demand of desktop computers is slowing down, which will affect the sales of memory part of semicon ductors, demand of tablets and smartphones is raising rapidly, which will lead to a rise in demand of semiconductor (Epperson, 2012). There are still a lot of rooms for the sales of semiconductor to grow.Increasing production of semiconductor due to its raise in demand may not seem hard in the future. Manufacturers are now developing automated production in order to decrease their production cost. Samsung can start increase semiconductors supply to these robots, since those parts will boost the demand for the sophisticated electronics that control the robots. D. Conclusions and Recommendations for Samsung One of the important recommendations is technology innovation. Samsung Electronics is a high-tech company, which provided support for innovation in the areas of technology.Product lines involved with other companies regarding the patent lawsuits. Lawsuits have negatively impacts on company’s growth. In order for company to maintain sustainability and remain competitive in th e industry, we recommend that the Samsung Electronics should focus on unique technology designs. In that way, it will protect the company from getting sued and attract more customers. Samsung should also increase semiconductors productions by finding opportunities to cooperate and be a supplier to other smaller electronic companies. Again, the company hould invest more in R&D projects, so it can built new technologies and new products in order to compete against its competitors. E. References About Samsung. (2012). Corporate profile. Retrieved from http://www. samsung. com/us/aboutsamsung/corporateprofile/ Epperson, L. (2012). Samsung Electronic Co. , Ltd. Hoover’s. Retrieved Oct. 27, 2012, from Hoover’s database. Mote, D. , Stansell, C. M. , Greenland, P. R. (2010). Samsung Electronics Co. , Ltd. In International Directory of Company Histories, 108, 433-440. Retrieved Oct. 27, 2012, from Gale Virtual Reference Library database. Patel, A. (2012).Samsung Electronics. St andard & Poor’s Equity Research. Retrieved Oct. 27, 2012, from Net Advantage database. Samsung Electronic. (2011). FY 2011 Annual report. Retrieved from http://www. samsung. com/us/aboutsamsung/ir/newsMain. do. Samsung. (2012). Samsung Company history. Retrieved from http://www. samsung. com/us/aboutsamsung/corporateprofile/history04. html Samsung. (2011a). Samsung 2011 annual report. Retrieved from http://www. samsung. com/us/aboutsamsung/ir/newsMain. do Samsung. (2011b). Samsung Telecommunications. Retrieved from http://www. samsung. com/global/business/telecommunication/productInfo. do? tgrygroup=11&ctgrytype=18&b2bprdid=146 Samsung’s flexible AMOLED display codenamed â€Å"Youm† in the works. (2012, April 11). Kashmir Monitor (India). Retrieved Nov. 28, 2012, from LexisNexis Academic database. Sustainability report. (2012). Global harmony with people, society, and environment. Retrieved from http://www. samsung. com/aboutsamsung/sustainability/sustainability report Wingfield, N. (2012, August 24). Jury awards $1 billion to Apple in Samsung patent case. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes. com/2012/08/25/technology/jury-reaches-decision-in-apple-samsung-patent-trial. html? _r=0

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Emotional, Emotional And Emotional Intelligence - 1208 Words

Emotional Intelligence Explained Emotional Intelligence is the capacity to assess, identify and influence the emotions of your own and everyone around you. For an example, a employee could be having difficulty understanding the task at hand instead the manager goes to the employee and identifies the misunderstanding and instead of letting the situation make everyone stress the manager instead reiterated what needs to be done in a simpler way so everyone is clearly aware and understands what to do. Another example of Emotional Intelligence is when two people do not see eye to eye on a subject instead of screaming at one another and storming off they instead speak without screaming and address the main concerns without arguing. The whole†¦show more content†¦This helps cut down on losing employees to the competition and also allows your employees to see that you care about their wellbeing. Generally, when employees know this then they will, in turn, provide the best quality of work that they can and also tend to be dedicated to the company for the long haul. Next reason why emotional intelligence is so important is when is comes to customers, you need to be able to provide sympathy towards your customers if they are going through a rough patch or a tough time. For an example a gas station is doing a remodel at the store which makes them lose out on their normal sales volume the vendors that sell their product at that store need to understand that the problem is temporary, not permanent as things go it s just a simple remodel then they gas station will be back to running to its full potential. A simple fix would be to adjust the supply to reflect the current sales since the establishment is not at it’s full operational status. By doing this you do not lose your customer or even make your customer upset with your company. Instead, this allows you to keep a long term upbeat customer. Speculate on Consequences when to not use Emotional Intelligence There are two simple reasons why leaders and managers should not use emotional intelligence that I can think of one would be when an employee is not being theShow MoreRelatedEmotional, Emotional And Emotional Intelligence1666 Words   |  7 PagesEmotional intelligence is ‘the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth’ (Mayer Salovey, 1997). 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